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Joining of Copper and Iron Metals by using Powder Metallurgy Technique
Mohit Kumar, Kuldeep Malik

In the present work two different types of powder are chosen for brazing, Copper-Iron (Fe) powders. Cu weight (5 gram), iron powder (5 gram) then the specimen were compacted with varying loads like 4-5-6 tonnes with the help of press machines, the compacts were in the curvaceous shape as cylinder. The compact material were sintered below their melting point in argon atmosphere with a consistent heating rate and holding for 2 to 3 hours followed by natural cooling, the specimens were cross sectioned using abrasive cutting machine, the specimen were mounted and polished for macroscopic and microscopic observation. The mounted specimens were polished with emery paper of grit size 1/0, 2/0, 3/0, and 4/0 provides smooth and shiny finish and were subjected to chemical etching using nital solution. To study macro and microstructures of the specimen optical and scanning electron microscope was used. Form the macrostructures it was observed that there is no presence of cracks in all the joints. It was observed that with the increases in compaction load there is a better bonding and strength between the joints. Microstructures did not show any presence of intermetallic phase. Form the hardness data it was confirmed that there is a presence of intermetallic phase due to marginal variation in the hardness.
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Parametric Effects on Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Silicon Alloy using Powder Metallurgy Technique
Rajender, Kuldeep Malik, Jagdeep Sangwan


Powder metallurgy offers an alternate technology, enabling us in producing alloys having improved fatigue, corrosion, and stress-corrosion resistance, as well as improved toughness and strength at room or elevated temperatures.
In the present research work, experiments were performed using different parameters and different compositions of powder. Three compositions of powder were used as given under:-
(1) Silicon 6% by weight, iron 1% by weight and rest amount of aluminum (Al-6Si-1Fe)
(2) Silicon 8% by weight, iron 1% by weight and rest amount of aluminum (Al-8Si-1Fe)
(3) Silicon 10% by weight, iron 1% by weight and rest amount of aluminum (Al-10Si-1Fe)
Using powder sample (Al-6Si-1Fe), specimen pieces were made at different compacting pressure (1.5 ton, 2 ton, 2.5 ton, 3 ton, 3.5 ton). It was seen that the relative density of aluminum alloy increases with the increase in compacting pressure (near about 1 at 3.5 ton).
Using powder sample (Al-6Si-1Fe), specimen pieces were made at same compacting pressure but sintering temperature is kept different(400˚C, 420˚C, 445˚C) for each piece. It was seen that the relative density of aluminum alloy also increases with increase of sintering temperature.
Using powder samples (Al-6Si-1Fe), (Al-8Si-1Fe) and (Al-10Si-1Fe), mechanical tests (compression test, tensile test and hardness test) were performed with the help of different parameters. And it was found that an aluminum alloy having silicon 5 to 10 % by weight, iron 1% by weight and rest amount of aluminum, have excellent mechanical properties when sintered at a temperature of 400˚C to 445˚C.

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A Study on Engine Valve Train and Its Effect on Cam Shaft
Avinash, Kuldeep Malik

Our research work deals with the study of vibrations in camshaft due to valve spring load and finding its frequencies at high speed. The primary function of the camshaft is the smooth opening and closing of valves, in actual working conditions of an engine there are some torque fluctuations experienced by the camshafts at high engine speeds. The results in the oscillations may adversely affect the various engine parts. Here we considering its affects on the valve spring, these oscillations result in variation in the force transmitted to the valve and thus valve spring. Valve spring motion in itself is a responsible factor for ultimate spring failure due to surging.
Considering the above factors we will base our work on the dynamic behaviour of camshafts at high speeds under the action of variable loads while in motion.
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A Projected Cost Estimation for Commercial Software Development Organization
Jyoti Sharma, Kulvinder Singh

The estimation of the software cost remains one of the most challenging problems in software engineering; as a preliminary estimate of cost includes many elements of uncertainty. Reliable and early estimates are difficult to obtain because of the lack of the detailed information about the future system at an early stage. However, the early estimates are really important when bidding for a contract or determining whether a project is feasible in terms of cost-benefit analysis. Estimators often rely on their past experiences for the prediction of effort for software projects. The fundamental factors that are contributing towards inaccuracy of the cost estimation process are imprecise and drifting requirements, information not readily available on past projects, and the methods that were developed and trained on specific data. In this propsed work, we have developed a software cost estimation tool that helps commercial software-development organizations to effectively and quantitatively measure and analyze the software metrics based upon the function requirements, operational constraints and organizations capability to handle a project. This cost estimation tool is a fusion implementation or an essence of certain software measurement and estimation techniques that help a software organization to evaluate and analyze fundamental software metrics such as complexity, time, effort, and cost all of which are essential to improving turnaround time and attaining organizational maturity. The new cost estimation method is proposed for the iterative software development projects. The use case technique is implemented per iteration for the specification of the software requirements. COCOMO II and Function Point were used to compute the effort required for successive iterations. We also computed the magnitude of relative error for successive iterations. We tested the proposed method on student projects in order to illustrate its usefulness.
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Performance Improvement of Gravitational Based Search Algorithm for Self Organizing Nodes in Mobile Ad hoc Network
Pooja Thakur, Chhavi Rana

A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a system of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically self organize in arbitrary and temporary network topologies. In the mobile ad hoc network, nodes can directly communicate with all the other nodes within their radio ranges; whereas nodes that not in the direct communication range use intermediate node(s) to communicate with each other. GSA is a nature inspired algorithm which is based on the Newton’s law of gravity and the law of motion. GSA is grouped under the population based approach and is reported to be more intuitive. The algorithm is intended to improve the performance in the exploration and exploitation capabilities of a population based algorithm, based on gravity rules. This research implements the GSA to improve the routing performance in the mobile Adhoc network. The research compares the results of the ABC based routing and the GSA based routing in MANET. The comparison parameters are PDR and end 2 end delay. The PDR of the proposed algorithm is better than the existing while the e2edelay gets reduced.
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Volume 5, Issue 1 
(January 2018)

Submission: 15 December 2017
Publication: January 2018


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.